Jessica is a medical writer with an unquenched thirst to discover something new. She believes that medical content should be accessible to everyone and strives to write content that every single person can understand. When Jessica isn’t writing, she can usually be found reading a book with a dog cuddled in her lap. Jessica has a Masters of Engineering degree in Biomedical Engineering.
Medically reviewed by
Amy is a Board Certified Family Health Nurse Practitioner (FNP) with over 15 years of experience working in Hospital Medicine, Urgent Care and Primary Care practices. Amy graduated Thomas Jefferson University with high distinction earning a Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 2008, a Master of Science in Nursing in 2010 and a Post Master's Certificate in Adult Gerontology Acute Care (AGAC) in 2014. She was recognized by the Elite American Nurses Association in 2013 for her dedication, achievements and leadership in the field Nursing. She served as a clinical preceptor for a number of Nurse Practitioner students and enjoys teaching the bright minds of future NPs.
As one of the most common infections, UTIs have a range of antibiotics available as potential treatments. One of the first-line medications prescribed by doctors for UTIs is Bactrim, also known as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
- Bactrim is a combination of two antibiotics, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole
- Bactrim is often prescribed as a first-line medication for UTIs due to its effectiveness against common bacteria that cause UTIs.
- Bactrim is only effective for bacterial infections, not viral or fungal infections.
Continue reading to learn more about Bactrim, its uses, the recommended dosage for UTIs, possible side effects, and also about other antibiotics used for UTIs.
Table of Contents
- What Is Bactrim?
- Is Bactrim Used to Treat UTIs?
- Is Bactrim Effective for UTIs?
- Bactrim Dosage for a UTI
- Bactrim Side Effects
- Bactrim Drug Interactions
- FAQs About Bactrim For UTIs
- Key Takeaways
What Is Bactrim?
Bactrim is the brand name for the combination medicine of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. These antibiotics combine to treat various bacterial infections, including:
- ear infections
- intestinal infections
- urinary tract infections (UTIs)
- traveler’s diarrhea
Bactrim belongs to the drug class sulfonamides, which stop bacteria growth by preventing bacteria from making a chemical (folic acid) they need to grow and survive.
Is Bactrim Used to Treat UTIs?
Bactrim is a common treatment for UTIs, and its treatment length may vary from 3 to 14 days, depending on the severity of the infection. This medication may also be used for children with UTIs if they are over two months old, with their dosage varying based on their weight.
For those with a UTI, Bactrim typically provides symptom relief within 3 days of the first dose.
However, Bactrim is only useful for UTIs due to bacterial infections. While this is the most common cause of a UTI, it may also result from fungi or a virus, and Bactrim is not a viable treatment option in these cases.
Is Bactrim Effective for UTIs?
While Bactrim is an effective treatment for many UTIs, it is not always as effective as it needs to be. This is the case with bacteria that are less sensitive to the medication, meaning the antibiotic cannot effectively stop the bacteria from growing. In these cases, an alternative medicine that is stronger is needed.
Other antibiotics that are also used to treat UTIs some of which may be more effective against certain types of UTIs include:
As an antibiotic that accumulates in the bladder, nitrofurantoin is specifically helpful for UTIs. It works by keeping bacteria from making the DNA and proteins they need in order to survive.
This antibiotic has a typical dosage of 100 mg twice a day for five days.
Cephalexin is a cephalosporin antibiotic prescribed for UTIs caused by the bacteria E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. This drug works by disrupting the cell wall’s synthesis of these bacteria, causing them to eventually die.
The usual dosage for cephalexin is 500 mg every 12 hours for seven days.
Amoxicillin/Potassium Clavulanate (Augmentin)
Yet another option for resistant bacteria, the potassium clavulanate added to amoxicillin makes it more effective at destroying the bacteria’s cell wall. However, this one may still not be as powerful as some other UTI antibiotics when it comes to resistant bacteria, and since amoxicillin is a penicillin, allergies can be common.
This medication is generally prescribed in a 500 mg tablet taken twice a day for 5-7 days.
Levofloxacin (Levaquin) or Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Both of these antibiotics are slightly more effective than amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate. Still, this higher effectiveness also comes with a higher risk of serious side effects, including permanent effects on the nervous system, tendon rupture, or irregular heartbeats. Because of this, these antibiotics are generally reserved for more complicated UTIs.
Bactrim Dosage for a UTI
Bactrim tablets come in the following strengths: 400 mg/80 mg and 800 mg/160 mg. The first number is the amount of sulfamethoxazole, and the second is the amount of trimethoprim.
For UTIs in adults, the standard dose is 800 mg/160 mg, taken twice a day for 10 to 14 days.
For those taking Bactrim as a liquid suspension, shake the bottle well before measuring the dose.
If you miss a dose, taking it as soon as you remember is best. The only exception is if your next dose is within a few hours. In this case, skip the missed dose and begin taking it again at the next scheduled time. It’s important to never “double-up” on a dose you miss, as this may cause side effects and further complications.
Bactrim may be taken with or without food, although taking it with food may help anyone experiencing an upset stomach.
Bactrim Side Effects
Some of the common side effects of Bactrim include:
- loss of appetite
- skin sensitivity to light or sun
- changes to blood sugar
Of note, Bactrim can increase your sensitivity to light and the sun, meaning you are likely to sunburn more easily. As such, while taking this antibiotic, it’s recommended to avoid tanning beds and sunlight and wear protective clothing and sunscreen when you have to go outdoors.
Bactrim may also cause some serious side effects, including:
- infectious (C. difficile-related) diarrhea
- serious allergic and skin reactions
- kidney problems
- low blood sodium levels
- high potassium levels
Some symptoms indicative of the above conditions include:
- urinating less than usual
- swelling in the ankles, feet, or hands
- swelling of the tongue, lips, or throat
- difficulty breathing
- foul-smelling diarrhea
- muscle cramps
Contact your healthcare provider immediately if you notice any of the above symptoms.
Some people may also develop dangerous skin conditions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), although these complications are very rare.
Bactrim Drug Interactions
Bactrim can interact with many medications, including:
- ACE inhibitors
Be sure to let your doctor know about any medications and/or supplements that you are taking so that they can minimize drug interactions and potential side effects.
It is also not recommended for those with severe liver disease, anemia from folic acid deficiency, or unmonitored kidney disease to take Bactrim.
Additionally, this medication is not recommended for those who are pregnant or breastfeeding, as it may pass to the child/fetus and has been associated with birth defects. If you are taking Bactrim and become pregnant, inform your doctor so that they can switch you to another antibiotic.
What Should I Avoid While Using Bactrim?
It’s recommended to avoid alcohol while taking Bactrim, as it may cause a disulfiram-like reaction which can result in severe nausea and vomiting, headache, shortness of breath, and irregular heartbeat. It’s also important to avoid taking new medications while on Bactrim unless you discuss it with your doctor first. Because Bactrim can increase your sensitivity to light, it is also recommended to avoid tanning beds and sunlight. When you do have to go outside, wear protective clothing and sunscreen to protect your skin and prevent severe burns.
How Much Bactrim Can I Take for a UTI?
Your doctor will prescribe the dosage and frequency at which you should take Bactrim, but generally, the dosage is 800 mg/160 mg, taken twice a day for 10 to 14 days. Taking more than prescribed will not make your infection go away any faster and will instead increase the risk of side effects.
How Quickly Does Bactrim Work for a UTI?
Bactrim will begin working to clear the infection within a few hours, but it may take a few days for you to notice an improvement in your symptoms. However, even if your symptoms go away, it is important to continue taking Bactrim for the complete prescribed course. Discontinuing it early increases the risk of bacteria remaining in the body, which could lead to a recurrent infection. If your symptoms do not improve within a few days of taking Bactrim, reach out to your doctor; another antibiotic may be needed to treat your infection.
Is Bactrim a Strong Antibiotic for a UTI?
While Bactrim is an excellent general antibiotic for a UTI, it is not considered a strong antibiotic. This is because it is likely for bacteria to be less sensitive to it, meaning the antibiotic may not be able to clear the infection completely. In these cases, an alternative medication that is stronger is needed. Some an ibiotics that can be effective against resistant bacteria include levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. However, stronger antibiotics may also have a higher risk of side effects, so your doctor will weigh the need for a stronger antibiotic with the potential risks.
What Kind of UTI Is Resistant to Bactrim?
Bactrim, as an antibiotic, is only effective against UTIs that result from bacterial infections. This means that it will not work as a treatment for UTIs that are due to fungal infections or viruses. Furthermore, the New York City Department of Health reported in 2019 that one-third of uncomplicated UTIs due to E. coli (which is also the most common type of UTI) are resistant to Bactrim. This evidence shows that this medication, which is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for UTIs, may not be effective in many cases.
Bactrim Better Than Amoxicillin for UTIs?
While both antibiotics can be used to treat UTIs, they have different methods by which they do so. Bactrim is a sulfonamide, which stops the growth of bacteria by stopping bacteria from making the chemical folic acid, which they need to grow and survive. In comparison, amoxicillin is a penicillin, which prevents bacteria from forming a cell wall, causing it to leech nutrients and die. Bactrim may be better than amoxicillin when treating UTIs in some people. The biggest reason for this is if someone has a penicillin allergy, which can extend to amoxicillin. Since Bactrim is not a penicillin, it is safe to take for those with a penicillin allergy.
Bactrim is the brand name for the combination drug sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, an antibiotic that is effective against many bacterial infections, including UTIs. However, Bactrim cannot always clear the infection completely since it is not as effective against resistant bacteria. In these cases, a doctor will then go in with another stronger antibiotic.
If prescribed Bactrim, it is important to be aware of other drugs that it may interact with and signs of serious side effects. If any of these symptoms are present, seek immediate medical attention.
Bactrim may not be the best antibiotic choice to treat your UTI, especially if you have a history of antibiotic resistance. Be sure to discuss with your doctor if you have this history and the severity of your symptoms. With DrHouse, you can do all this from the comfort of your home, allowing you to receive the antibiotics you need to feel better without having to leave your house.
- Why it’s getting so much harder to treat UTIs. (2023). https://www.advisory.com/daily-briefing/2019/07/16/uti
- Mehnert-Kay S. A. (2005). Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. American family physician, 72(3), 451–456. PMID: 16100859.
- Antibiotic-resistant urinary tract infections are on the rise – Harvard Health. (2019). https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/antibiotic-resistant-urinary-tract-infections-are-on-the-rise-2019101417982
- Kemnic TR, Coleman M. Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole. [Updated 2022 Nov 28]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513232/
- Abusin, S., & Johnson, S. (2008). Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim induced liver failure: a case report. Cases Journal, 1(1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1757-1626-1-44
- Cardinale, B., Zembles, T. N., Ray, K., Bushee, G., Liegl, M., Simpson, P., & Mitchell, M. (2023). Retrospective Comparison of Cefdinir, Cephalexin, and Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim in the Treatment of Outpatient Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections. Clinical pediatrics, 62(1), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/00099228221112055
Content on the DrHouse website is written by our medical content team and reviewed by qualified MDs, PhDs, NPs, and PharmDs. We follow strict content creation guidelines to ensure accurate medical information. However, this content is for informational purposes only and not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For more information read our medical disclaimer.
Always consult with your physician or other qualified health providers about medical concerns. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking it based on what you read on this website.
If you are experiencing high fever (>103F/39.4C), shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chest pain, heart palpitations, abnormal bruising, abnormal bleeding, extreme fatigue, dizziness, new weakness or paralysis, difficulty with speech, confusion, extreme pain in any body part, or inability to remain hydrated or keep down fluids or feel you may have any other life-threatening condition, please go to the emergency department or call 911 immediately.
DrHouse provides 24/7 virtual urgent care, men’s health, women’s health and online prescriptions.
On-demand virtual visits
24/7 care support
Prescriptions as needed